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Subota, 16 April 2022 10:33

Džon Djui - O prirodi logike

Da se bolje shvati postojeća neizvjesnost u pogledu glavnog predmeta, dovoljno je navesti samo neka od raznih shvaćanja o prirodi logike koja sada stoje u međusobnoj suprotnosti. Kaže se na primjer, da je logika znanost o nužnim zakonima mišljenja, i da je ona teorija uređenih relacija, relacija koje su sasvim nezavisne od mišljenja.

Nedelja, 10 April 2022 10:50

Džordž Berkli - O ljudskoj spoznaji

Kako filozofija nije ništa drugo do proučavanje mudrosti i istine, moglo bi se s pravom očekivati, da će oni, koji su na nju utrošili najviše vremena i truda, uživati veći mir i vedrinu duha, veću jasnoću i očevidnost spoznaje nego drugi ljudi, i da će ih manje nego ostale uznemiravati sumnje i poteškoće.

Nedelja, 03 April 2022 11:06

Nikolaj Hartman - Prostor i vreme

Istinska obilježja realnosti ne pripadaju kategorijama prostora i materije, nego onima vremena i individualnosti. Prostor i vrijeme ontološki nisu jednako vrijedne kategorije: vrijeme je u mnogo čemu fundamentalnije od prostora. Prostorni su samo stvari i živa bića, uključivo procesi u kojima protječe njihov opstanak; a vremenski su osim toga također duševna i duhovna zbivanja. Baš u vremenu je sve realno, u prostoru samo dio - moglo bi se reći samo polovica realnoga svijeta, naime njegove niže tvorbe.

Mnogoznačna, duboko-smislena povezanost religije, umjetnosti i filozofije, u kojoj su Istočnjaci živjeli, razdijeljena je kod Grka u diferncirana ostvarenja ovih triju oblika duhovnog stvaralaštva. Njihov jasni, samosvjesni duh oslobodio je filozofiju povezanosti s religijom kao i od vidovite simbolike pjesništva srodnog filozofiji i religioznosti. Njihova plastična snaga zora djelovala je na posebnom razvijanju vrsta duhovnog stvaranja. Tako je kod Grka, u isto vrijeme kad i filozofija, nastao i njen pojam i izraz φιλοσοφία xxx.

Subota, 05 Mart 2022 11:30

Ogist Kont - Zakon o tri stupnja

Da bi se kako treba objasnila prava priroda i bitni karakter pozitivne filozofije, neophodno je potreban općenit pogled na progresivan hod ljudskog duha promatran u cjelini; jer se neko shvaćanje može spoznati tek kroz njegovu povijest.

U prostranim ravnicama Eufrata čovek podiže jednu gorostasnu tvorevinu arhitekture; on je izgrađuje u zajednici, i zajedničnost građenja postaje ujedno svrha i sadržina same tvorevine. I zaista, ovo zasnivanje jednog društvenog saveza ne ostaje neko čisto patrijarhalno udruženje; naprotiv, to prosto porodično jedinstvo upravo se ukinulo i građevina koja se diže u oblake predstavlja objektiviranje toga ukinutog ranijeg jedinstva i ostvarenje jednog novog proširenog jedinstva.

Human happiness has long been understood as something difficult or impossible to achieve, and over the centuries philosophers have advised people how to live a happy life. In philosophy, happiness is translated from the Greek concept of eudaimonia, and it refers to the good life or prosperity and not only to emotions, and is generally understood as a moral goal of life or as an aspect of chance. Philosophical “theories of happiness“ can be about either of at least two different things: well-being or a state of mind can be related to any of at least two different things, well-being or state of mind.

For this reason also the question is asked, whether happiness is to beacquired by learning or by habituation or some other sort of training, or comes in virtue of some divine providence or again by chance. Now if there is any gift of the gods to men, it is reasonable that happiness should be god-given, and most surely god-given of all human things in asmuchas it is the best. But this question would perhaps be more appropriate to another inquiry; happiness seems, however, even if it is not god-sent but comes as a result of virtue and some process of learning or training, to be among the most god like things; for that which is the prize and end of virtue seems to be the best thing in the world, and something god like and blessed.

The Nicomachean Ethics has a preeminent role in defining Aristotelian ethics. This work was written around 340 BC and consists of ten books, originally separate scrolls. The title is often assumed to refer to his son Nicomachus, to whom the work was dedicated or who may have edited it. Also, the work may have been dedicated to his father, who was also called Nicomachus. The Nicomachean Ethics is considered one of the most important historical philosophical works. It becomes one of the core works of medieval philosophy and indirectly becomes critical in the development of modern philosophy.

Četvrtak, 01 Juli 2021 21:01

Plato: How diseases arise

The frame of the entire creature when young has the triangles of each kind new, and may be compared to the keel of a vessel which is just off the stocks; they are locked firmly together and yet the whole mass is soft and delicate, being freshly formed of marrow and nurtured on milk. Now when the triangles out of which meats and drinks are composed come in from without, and are comprehended in the body, being older and weaker than the triangles already there, the frame of the body gets the better of them and its newer triangles cut them up, and so the animal grows great, being nourished by a multitude of similar particles.

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