Human happiness has long been understood as something difficult or impossible to achieve, and over the centuries philosophers have advised people how to live a happy life. In philosophy, happiness is translated from the Greek concept of eudaimonia, and it refers to the good life or prosperity and not only to emotions, and is generally understood as a moral goal of life or as an aspect of chance. Philosophical “theories of happiness“ can be about either of at least two different things: well-being or a state of mind can be related to any of at least two different things, well-being or state of mind.

For this reason also the question is asked, whether happiness is to beacquired by learning or by habituation or some other sort of training, or comes in virtue of some divine providence or again by chance. Now if there is any gift of the gods to men, it is reasonable that happiness should be god-given, and most surely god-given of all human things in asmuchas it is the best. But this question would perhaps be more appropriate to another inquiry; happiness seems, however, even if it is not god-sent but comes as a result of virtue and some process of learning or training, to be among the most god like things; for that which is the prize and end of virtue seems to be the best thing in the world, and something god like and blessed.

The Nicomachean Ethics has a preeminent role in defining Aristotelian ethics. This work was written around 340 BC and consists of ten books, originally separate scrolls. The title is often assumed to refer to his son Nicomachus, to whom the work was dedicated or who may have edited it. Also, the work may have been dedicated to his father, who was also called Nicomachus. The Nicomachean Ethics is considered one of the most important historical philosophical works. It becomes one of the core works of medieval philosophy and indirectly becomes critical in the development of modern philosophy.

Četvrtak, 01 Juli 2021 21:01

Plato: How diseases arise

The frame of the entire creature when young has the triangles of each kind new, and may be compared to the keel of a vessel which is just off the stocks; they are locked firmly together and yet the whole mass is soft and delicate, being freshly formed of marrow and nurtured on milk. Now when the triangles out of which meats and drinks are composed come in from without, and are comprehended in the body, being older and weaker than the triangles already there, the frame of the body gets the better of them and its newer triangles cut them up, and so the animal grows great, being nourished by a multitude of similar particles.

Utorak, 29 Juni 2021 20:21

Plato's Cosmology: The Timaeus

The Timaeus is Plato dialogues mostly in the form of a long monologue given by the title character Timaeus of Locri, written c. 360 BC. Participants in the dialogue include Timaeus, Socrates, Hermocrates, and Critias. In it, Plato gives his cosmological story as a part of the portrait of Greek thought, and as a facet in the complex entity that was Plato's realm of ideas. Thanks to a translation by Cicero the Timaeus was influential in the Middle Ages and continues to hold a place in the significant literature of philosophy.

Nedelja, 06 Juni 2021 10:17

The legend of Laocoön and His Sons

Like most Ancient Greek sculptures, the subject matter depicted in Laocoön and His Sons, or Laocoön Group is based on classical mythology. It depicts the suffering of the mythical Trojan prince and priest Laocoön (the son of Agenor of Troy or, according to some, the brother of Anchises), and his young sons Antiphantes and Thymbraeus. There are several versions of legend about the death of Laocoön and His Sons, with key details changing from story to story. Similarly, the identity of the vengeful god behind the attack varies; while Poseidon is typically held responsible, some stories also mention Athena or Apollo.

Petak, 21 Maj 2021 10:52

The role of money in modern society

The universal character of money has been a topic of interest throughout philosophy, sociology, and psychology for centuries. The notion of money is rationally expressed in numbers, but again it emerges as a myth in various forms. In modern society, money is the most sophisticated social measurement system. It is a sign of success, wealth, power, importance - personal, societal, international. We all, on some level, lust for money. The accumulation of money for money's sake is a major disturbance in relationships.

The importance of money within the system of appreciation is measurable by the development of the money fine. We first encounter in this area, as its most peculiar manifestation, the atonement of murder by payment of money an occurrence so frequent in primitive cultures that it makes specific examples unnecessary, at least for its simplest and most direct form. Less appreciated, however, is not so much the frequency as the intensity with which the relationship between human value and money value dominates legal conceptions.

German philosopher and sociologist Georg Simmel published his magnum opus, The Philosophy of Money, in 1900. It is an amalgam of history, economics, sociology, social psychology, and cultural commentary. Simmel focuses on the psychological and sociological effects of money as a cultural determinant. Discussing the meaning of money is for him a matter of discussing money as a phenomenon. He describes the experience of money and analyzes the preconditions that give money its meaning: consciousness, social relations, and values.

The order of our investigation of the different sections of the proletariat follows naturally from the foregoing history of its rise. The first proletarians were connected with manufacture, were engendered by it, and accordingly, those employed in manufacture, in the working up of raw materials, will first claim our attention. The production of raw materials and fuel for manufacture attained importance only in consequence of the industrial change and engendered a new proletariat, the coal and metal miners. Then, in the third place, manufacture influenced agriculture, and in the fourth, the condition of Ireland; and the fractions of the proletariat belonging to each, will find their place accordingly.

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